2006Ojārs Kalniņš, Director, Latvian Institute
How should we remember the 100,000?
Each year since 1998, veterans of the World War II Latvian Legion and their family members have gone to memorial services in churches and cemeteries in Latvia on March 16 to remember fellow soldiers who died in the war. During the German occupation of Latvia (1941-1944), more than 100,000 Latvians were conscripted into combat units that fought against the Stalin’s Red Army on the Eastern Front.
This annual remembrance of Latvians who wore German uniforms to fight against the Soviet Union has generated political controversy, some minor protests and modest international media attention, largely because of misunderstandings about the historical role of the Latvian Legion during World War II. In some cases, the misunderstandings arise from a simple unfamiliarity with the facts. In others, there is a calculated attempt to misrepresent the role of Legion veterans, both today, and during World War II.
Part of the problem comes from the intentionally misleading German designation of the Latvian Legion as “the Latvian Voluntary SS Legion,” which was formed under the German Waffen-SS (Schutzstaffel). The 15th and 19th Latvian Legion divisions created in 1943 were neither voluntary nor were they associated in any way with the notorious Nazi SS organization that was responsible for the Holocaust.
Original at www.rigasummit.lv
Most of the estimated 100,000 young Latvian men who made up the Latvian Legion were forcibly mobilized to fight on Germany’s collapsing Eastern Front. Draft evasion was punishable by death. The Soviets were advancing, the Germans were retreating and the Latvians were called up to fill the gap. While Adolf Hitler’s racist policies had forbidden the use non-German combatants in the early stages of the war, by 1943, desperation overruled discrimination. Similar non-German Waffen-SS combat units were established in France, Italy, Hungary, Ukraine, Estonia and Belarus, all in a last-ditch German effort to prevent defeat.
Hitler’s mass extermination of Jews in Latvia had already ended in 1943, long before the Latvian Legion combat units were formed. This was recognized by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg, when the Latvian Legion and other conscripted non-German Waffen-SS units were exempted from criminal charges associated with the Nazi Holocaust.
The Latvians who were drafted into the Latvian Legion were neither Nazis nor fascists, nor did they wish to see a Nazi German victory in the war. They were young men who had just seen their loved ones and friends executed and deported by the thousands by the departing Soviet regime. Joseph Stalin’s brutal Russification of Latvia had been cut short by the German invasion in 1941, and there was every indication it would be resumed once the Soviet army pushed the Germans out and re-occupied Latvia.
Although forcibly mobilized, once armed and in uniform, many in the Legion believed this was their only chance to prevent a second Soviet takeover. As during World War I, when Latvian freedom fighters battled both Bolsheviks and Germans to win Latvia’s independence, the soldiers of the Legion hoped that history could repeat itself. They would defeat the Soviets and then turn their guns on the Nazis. But the Soviet force was overwhelming and Latvia was occupied once more. That second occupation ended in 1991 with the collapse of the U.S.S.R.
Not many surviving members of the Latvian Legion are left today in Latvia. But each year the veterans, former soldiers caught in a vise between two totalitarian powers, meet to remember their suffering and sacrifices. They see themselves as Latvian patriots who believed, however erroneously, that they were fighting for the restoration of a free Latvia. For this reason, March 16, the anniversary of a major Latvian Legion battle in Russia, was chosen by them as a day of solemn remembrance.
Moscow has always viewed the Legion veterans as enemies of the Soviet state and sent them to Soviet labor camps after the war. When the U.S.S.R. collapsed, the Russian government officially preserved this hostility and has routinely condemned the remembrance of the Legion veterans on March 16t in Latvia. This criticism, however, has often gone beyond the historical facts and wrongly accused the Latvian Legion of war crimes, fascism and complicity in the Holocaust.
Confusion over the Waffen-SS designation has also contributed to a misrepresentation of the Legion veterans in the mass media. Solemn flower-laying ceremonies at monuments and cemeteries, attended by aged veterans and their families, have been wrongly described in the media as “marches.” Nothing could be further from the truth. They march nowhere, carry no banners, shout no slogans and have no political agenda. They simply wish to honor their fallen friends and comrades.
History is always a subject of interpretation, and three brutal military occupations in a five-year period during World War II, have made Latvia’s history especially difficult for non-historians to understand. For Latvia, this was an especially tragic period when most who were caught between two invading armies became victims of forces far beyond their control.
In recent years, some radical political groups have tried to disrupt the quiet March 16 events to call attention to themselves and their political causes. They have been condemned by Latvian authorities as well as the former Legion soldiers. But most who go to church or cemeteries on that day have no political agenda whatsoever. They are simply paying their respects to 100,000 fathers, sons and friends who became tragic victims of a very costly and complicated war.
The Latvian Institute is dedicated to promoting international recognition of Latvia via information dissemination, various activities, and private and public partnerships. Created initially in 1993 as a non-profit by the Latvian government, it has been under administration by the Latvian Foreign Ministry since early 2012. Its directors have included:
- Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga (19 October 1998-08 July 1999)
- Ojārs Ēriks Kalniņš (1999-December 2010)
- Karina Pētersone (since January 2011)
Ojārs Kalniņš is a Latvian diplomat and politician, parliamentary member of the 11th Saeima, and member of the "Vienotība" party. Prior to this, Kalniņš was the Latvian ambassador to the USA (1993-1999) and director of the Latvian Institute, as noted above. Prior to resettling in Latvia, he was active in American Latvian organizations.
Kalniņš is currently (2015) serving as Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the European Parliament.